Vol. 27, No. 2 - December 2023

Intelligent Optimization of CMOS Operational Amplifier Using 3D Ant Colony Optimization

https://doi.org/10.53314/ELS2327043A
Muhammad Ayaz and Irfan Ullah
Abstract
In this paper, a four unit cell micron-sized magnetic particles embedded composite right/left-handed (CRLH) trans- mission line metamaterial phase shifter is proposed. The vari- able phases are achieved by activating the micron-sized magnetic particles along the length of stub transmission lines of the CRLH transmission line structure. This causes to effectively change the inductance of stub transmission lines, which changes the phase of the RF signal. These structures can be activated in a symmetric or asymmetrical manner to obtain wide range of phase shifts. A prototype of cascaded four unit cell CRLH transmission line phase shifter with embedded silver-coated ferrites (magnetic particles) is designed, fabricated and tested for phase shifters applications. The measured phase response of the proposed phase shifter is in close agreement with the simulated phase response. Next, for the performance analysis of proposed phase shifter, a 1 × 4 conformal curved-shaped phased array operating at 5.8 GHz is fed with the four unit cell cascaded phase shifter in CST full-wave simulator. The conformal phased array with proposed integrated phase shift- ers was simulated for broadside pattern correction and main beam scanning at 20 degree on curved-shaped surface with different bend angles. The radiation pattern results obtained with the pro- posed integrated phase shifters are in close agreement with those obtained with direct excitation of the array.
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